The PlayStation (Japan プレイステーション, PlayStation) is a video game console of company Sony, which sold in 1994 for the first time and making finally discontinued 2006 after twelve time periods was. With Ken Kutaragi as Chairman of the specially founded subsidiary Sony computer entertainment became the second most successful stationary console of all time the PlayStation (102 million copies sold around the world, only surpassed by the own successor to the PlayStation 2) and crashed in the field of home consoles the former market leader Nintendo from the throne.
Formation and history
Motherboard of PlayStationOriginally Sony should develop (add-on) 16-bit console, SNES (Super Nintendo Entertainment System) a CD drive for Nintendo, whose code name was "Play Station". In return it would be allowed Sony to develop an own console with CD drive, which could use the SNES was valuable technology, project name "Play Station". When Nintendo announced, with the Dutch company of Philips a contract for the project to complete "SNES-CD" (which however little later announced was), Sony made a completely standalone game console, whose internal project title "PlayStation experimental" should have an increase from the joint project. Other sources state on the other hand, the X stood for "Extreme", again others relate it to "Expansion", since Nintendo used this abbreviation for his SNES satellite-add-on SatellaView-X (BSX). That is why she wore the unofficial nickname "PSX" until the appearance of the PSone and PlayStation 2. With the release of the successor "PlayStation 2" in the year 2000, it was renamed to PSone, which brought also an optical Frischzellenkur of the device, but the abbreviation PSX holds out still over the life of the console. Under the official name of PSX, Sony in Japan published a multimedia hybrids from PS2 and hard disk recorder.
Has contributed to the success of the PlayStation certainly, that the games on CD-ROM and not on modules were delivered, as was the case in the most older widespread consoles. Not only the production costs were much lower, the much larger space allowed for the installation of extensive FMV cutscenes and real instrumental music with vocals, as well as speech into the game. The ability to copy the CD ROMs on the widely used from the late of 1990s CD-burning, what was possible in the previous game modules only with special peripheral equipment, increased the popularity on the part of the consumers, which copies only with mod-chip or special boot CD are playable.
Although the PlayStation at the factory could play games only from the own region, by installing a so-called modchip it was possible, however, to play import games from all over the world. This cheap conversion was not least popular by the time disclosure policy of most game publishers; so, PAL versions were usually published months or sometimes years after the Japanese and North American versions; all too often, the PAL versions were high even worse, because usually on an adjustment of the rate on the television standard used in Europe and Australia and the image resolution has been omitted. This resulted wide black borders at the top and bottom of the screen, as well as a slower game play. Many games, especially text-intensive games only elaborately would need to be translated for a commercial success in the different European languages, were not published at all in Europe. These significant disadvantages moved many players for the installation of Modchips to access the global game library in the best quality. An unwanted side effect of most of these chips, it was however that the PlayStation could play then also copied games from self-burned CDs.
In addition the PlayStation could play audio CDs; because the console but has no own loudspeakers or controls designed for it, the TV had to be turned on for this generally as playback medium; only through cumbersome cabling two of the three RCA connectors with the stereo system and the third with the TV or using an RGB cable with separate audio outputs but the sound through speakers could be replayed. But even then, the control by means of joystick menu appears on the screen had to be; There was no remote control. As a bonus the PlayStation from a later revision could represent a light show of music with changing colors and shapes in the rhythm.
In contrast to the SNES, the then single competitor of Nintendo's (although it must be said that the SNES was released in 1991), and the still available Sega Genesis from 1989 could the PlayStation (as well as the Sega Saturn and 3DO also Atari Jaguar) already specifically relating to 3D of developed hardware come up with. It took some time until Nintendo 1996 countered with the Nintendo 64.
First PlayStation joypad
The PlayStation provides two ports for various controllers are used to control the characters of a game. The original PlayStation joypad offers four main buttons (cross, circle, triangle, square) for the thumb of the right hand, which trigger actions, two selection keys (select and start), that are placed in the Middle, as well as four shoulder buttons (L1, L2, and R1 and R2), served with the index fingers in most games and take over the control often secondary tasks. Directions will be made with the thumb of the left hand on a 4-way D-pad, while diagonals are achieved by the simultaneous pressing of two directions (such as the top and right = diagonally to the right above). 1997 also introduced an analog controller which took over Nintendo's idea of the Analogsticks, but offered two of these sticks. This small joystick allowed a continuous directional at different impact strength, allowing a feinfühligere control compared to a pad. The design of PlayStation joypads remained largely unaffected thereby, because the two Analogsticks were added only in the development in the lower part of joypads. However the rear shoulder buttons (L2, R2) were increased a good deal, to increase the comfort, and the joypad was applied two more buttons. L3 and R3 are located under the Analogsticks and be activated when you press one of the Analogsticks down.
Dual shock controller
The dual shock controller, of the beginning of 1998 the game was introduced in Gran Turismo, but quickly replaced the analog controller. He was the same in the building, but offered an optional rumble feature. This technique used semi-circular metal blocks, which were brought into the joystick mounted to rotate. The resulting imbalance brought the joystick with certain scenes to the vibration. Through the vibration of joypads in the hands of the player the impression of high-action scenes should be increased once again what both software vendors and players was well received and was used in almost every game of the sounding out PlayStation 1 era. Already after a short time the Dualshock controller to the standard joystick was declared the PlayStation, so that new equipment only with this joystick were delivered. Some games late in the life cycle of the system require even an analog controller. The design and the technology found the Dualshock 2, the SIXAXIS and the dual shock 3; also in PlayStation 2 and PlayStation 3 controllers, However, the former digital keys are continuously variable analog switched for these versions, are even wireless and motion-sensitive SIXAXIS and Dualshock 3.
More peripherals for PlayStation are:
The multi tap. This can be for example the number of controllers to five and expand the number of memory cards to four. Up to eight players with eight memory cards can compete with two multi taps. This is supported only by some a few games (such as football live).
Light guns (such as just! a gun, Namco G-con 45)
Dual analog joystick
other so-called freak goods such as such as small pseudo guitars, which are needed for playing certain software titles.
different Cheatmodule for the rear expansion slot
a module for the expansion slot back to play VCDs
Controller of foreign manufacturers in various colours and shapes, often similar to design of the original
colored cases (even transparent) from third-party
Modchips, Ghostchips to play import games or backup copies
Series replacement for the PSone in the form of a CD
Memory cards by Sony in different colors with 120 kilobytes size (15 blocks with 8 KB)
Memory cards from other manufacturers in sizes of several megabytes
Adapter for playing game boy games for the expansion slot (from third-party manufacturers)
DexDrive-drive to back up games on standard 3.5 "disks (from third-party)"
different anbringbare on the PSone liquid crystal screens, Sony as well as third-party
Technical data of the PlayStation. These apply to the PlayStation (PS) and the slightly smaller PlayStation one (PSone).
CPU: 32-bit MIPS RISC (R3000A custom), clock: 33.8688 MHz (30 MIPS performance)
Memory: 2 MB (1.5 MB RAM + 512 kB ROM)
ROM: 512 kB
Chart: PlayStation GPU, 1 MB graphics RAM
Color depth: 4-bit to 24-bit (16.7 million colors)
Resolution: 320 × 240 to 640 × 480 (NTSC, interlaced) or 512 × 384 (PAL) pixels
Texture mapping and flat or Gouraud shading
MDEC chip for hardware decoding of films (such as the full motion video)
Sound: SPU ADPCM, MIDI support, 24, 512 kB sound RAM
Drive: 2 x CD-ROM drive, 32 kB buffer, 660 MB of disk space
Comparison of connections: SCPH-1002 links and SCPH-9002 right
2 × Controller ports
2 × Memory card slot
AV MULTI OUT (proprietary port on the stereo, Kompositvideo, S-video and RGB signals)
AV Cinchausgänge for stereo sound, and Kompositvideo (only with the SCPH-1002)
S Video Hosidenbuchse (only for models for the Japanese market)
Serial I/o for multiplayer (not on the PSone)
Parallel I/o for external modules (such as so-called fudge modules such as "Xploder", is the last version SCPH-9002 away fallen)
Dimensions (height × width × depth): 60 × 270 × 188 mm/PSone: 38 x 194 x 146 mm (about 35% of the volume of the original PS)
Differences between PS and PSone
In December 1994, the first PlayStation (PS) in Japan was released for 35.820 ¥ (then approx. 573 DM - the price for an import amounted to up to 2800 DM), introduced in Europe in September 1995 (price: 599 DM). She learned several small redesigns over the years with mainly outlets such as the RCA outputs, such as were saved. The main design of the unit remained however intact. Only in 2000 Sony had revised optically again the device, which was reflected particularly in the size. The equivalent in the functions, but significantly shrunken together PlayStation was called from then on PSone. In general usage, both consoles are often called PSone, to be able to distinguish them clearly from PS2 games for the following console PlayStation 2.
Psone with a liquid crystal display
Apparent differences of the PSone to the PS:
Colour white (PS: grey)
White DualShock controller
Parallel port (e.g. for fudge modules) has been removed
No new start button (reset)
external power supply
History of the console
The Board of the PlayStation was significantly reduced by technical progress and combines several chips in one package. Also, many ports have been rationalised away the RCA terminals from the 5002er series, the parallel port from the 9002er series and the link option (serial connection) from the series SCPH 102 (PSone).
PlayStation (product launch in Europe 1995, Japan on December 3, 1994, United States)
PSone (launch: 2000, new design, is technically the original PlayStation)
The term PlayStation was used by Sony for all later own consoles, so the PlayStation 2 (PS2), PlayStation Portable (PSP), PlayStation 3 (PS3) and the 2011/12 published PlayStation Vita (PSV)
There were five versions of the PlayStation:
the normal PlayStation (model numbers SCPH-xxxx) in the gray housing
the PSone (model numbers SCPH-1xx)
a so-called net Yaroze (DTL-H300x model number) with black housing
the so-called debugging station (DTL-H100x or DTL-H110x or also DTL-H1200) in the blue or green package
a white version (model number SCPH-5903) with playback capability for video CDs
Normal execution (grey enclosure)
SCPH-1002 in a light gray was the first version released in Europe in November. Have RCA connectors are missing later models with this housing design reasons, so that the sound could be worn separately, but was issued only by the A/V multi out output. The model SCPH-9002, the parallel port (expansion) is missing in addition so that the use of Cheatmodulen was impossible. Rumors say that the parallel port was also removed because several Cheatmodule facilitate the so-called "swap trick" (change trick), which allows the start of copied CD-R games without modchip. From the model SCPH-7502, a new dark blue interface for MemoryCard-Manager and the CD player was introduced, but in turn the audio playback effects of the predecessor removed. Visualizations could also be selected from this model during music playback.
A peculiarity of the SCPH-1002 was a defective aircraft design of the power supply, which led with increasing age of the console to overheat and thus to read errors. Work around the error can be by to set up the console upside down or sideways.
This last PlayStation was released shortly before the release of the PS2 and differs from the remaining models due to their much smaller mass, a rounded form and the external power supply. However, here too the serial port to the cost savings has been removed so that the ability to link mode was dropped. By the outsourced power supply, it was now possible to build a PSone in the car.
Sony NET Yaroze with SDK
The so-called net Yaroze (DTL-H300x model number) was housed in a black case. With this, it was possible to program their own games, which also have a PC with Internet connection, as well as knowledge of the C programming language were necessary. Due to the high price of $750 USD and the fact that at that time very few households had an Internet connection, this version of the PlayStation could not prevail. Also how to program on the "net Yaroze" was quite difficult, even if you previously had Programmierkenntnisse, and the games had rarely due to the limited developer tools (in contrast to the much more expensive, official developer tools) 3D graphics. For a long time was found on demo CDs of the official PlayStation Magazine out and again some games which were programmed with a net Yaroze.
The net Yaroze in contrast to the PlayStation in able to play games in all image formats was mandatory. The only other difference in the enclosed NET Yaroze tools (boot CD, compiler, access card) was at delivery. The net Yaroze could not play but CD-R copies in contrast to the debugging station. Many programmers from the demo/homebrew scene use also illegally copied NET Yaroze compiler and cracked NET Yaroze boot CDs in conjunction with normal Playstations, which were equipped with a modchip, because the net Yaroze was too expensive for them.
New debugging station (DTL-H1102)
Model badge (DTL-H1002)
The so-called debugging station (DTL-H100x or DTL-H110x or also DTL-H1200) had a blue or green case and could play games in all image formats and also burnt copies on CD-R (without modchip or modifications, directly from the factory). This was important, as beta versions on CD-Rs were tested. However, it was never available for the end user, but was awarded only to licensed developers and editors of video game magazines. For this reason, it is a sought-after rarity.
The white PlayStation (model number SCPH-5903) could play video CDs without additional expansion card, was released only in Asia, and is a sought-after collector's item due to the low print run of 10,000 copies.
For the PlayStation, over 4,000 games, including some who founded whole new genres appeared in over the years. To the most important include in particular the following:
To the launch of the PlayStation the game Ridge Racer from Namco was released in 1994, which is regarded as the very first PlayStation game ever. Although there was only a single line (which you but in different lengths and also mirrored could), it became a hit and led to high sales figures of games like consoles. The action racing game destruction Derby, which impressed the strategy game designed for multiplayer worms, with a sophisticated for that time damage model of vehicles, as well as the futuristic glider racing WipEout are among the most important publications in 1995. Also the first part of the successful today Tekken series, as well as renewed in each following year sports games of the FIFA Soccer and NBA Live series of electronic appear for the first time in that year arts.
The probably most sustainable publication of 1996 is resident evil Capcom which is sold around the world millions and moved several sequels to himself. Also, a million-seller is the action-adventure game Tomb Raider, whose Heldin Lara Croft became one of the most famous figures of popular culture. Other hits of the year are the platform n'run pandemonium, the implementation of the film die hard trilogy, the formula 1 racing formula 1, which is waiting with a realistic commentary, as well as the particularly technically advanced sequels Tekken 2 and WipEout 2097.
The biggest hit of 1997 is final Fantasy VII, a role-playing game epic, which sets new standards with regard to the presentation. Besides criticism and fans praise the racing Porsche challenge, the beat'em up soul blade and the innovative platform n'run Oddworld: Abe's Oddysey. The first part of the Grand Theft Auto series appears. The race simulation is Gran Turismo 1998 a million hit, also appear the highly successful sequels Resident Evil 2, Tekken 3, need for speed III: hot pursuit and the stealth game Metal Gear Solid.
1999 Pro Skater be brought out with Silent Hill and Tony Hawk's two genre these games. Dino crisis moved that successful resident evil concept in a dinosaur scenario and the racing driver offers up to date unknown freedom of movement in virtual cities. Also Gran Turismo 2 and Final Fantasy VIII, the agent game Syphon Filter, the first-person shooter Medal of Steven Spielberg's film company of DreamWorks co-produced of honor and the action-heavy flight sim ACE combat 3 ensure forever still continued strong sales of software and hardware.
In 2000, the year of publication of the PlayStation 2, appears the innovative action-adventure game fear effect and the still very good-selling sequels Dino crisis 2, Final Fantasy IX, and Medal of Honor: underground. In the year 2001 will be with fear effect 2 and C-12: final resistance brought out the last large, elaborately produced games. Then, the most major game publisher focused exclusively on the new PlayStation 2. The players almost unnoticed the appearance of two retro game hits runs in 2003: the beat'em up international karate plus and presented this as a James Bond parody platform n'run James pond 2 appeared many years previously for Commodore 64 and Amiga.
It attempts first working emulation of PlayStation games on the PC at the end of the 1990's. The program of Bleem! was lead the way; Thanks to the programming in assembler, it ran amazing fluidly even on less powerful computers. Bleem was released commercially in 1999. Sony filed a complaint against the makers of Bleem, but lost on all counts. Ultimately the dispute meant the but still for the emulator, because the legal costs for the two-man companies were not to wear.
There were Bleemcast, called three special Dreamcast versions of the emulator. In each of the three Bleemcasts only with a particular game was compatible; the supported games was Metal Gear Solid, Tekken 3 and Gran Turismo. The graphical quality of this title was significantly improved by Bleemcast, manifested by a higher resolution and MIP-mapping on the textures. Today, the PlayStation can be almost perfectly emulated on the PC. The most popular and most powerful emulator is ePSXe; but it has the disadvantage to have an image file of the PlayStation BIOS need; It is however illegal to download them. PCSX, which although not as compatible as ePSXe is, for it but needs a BIOS image and is therefore in the use of legal is an another popular emulator.
Also on the PlayStation itself can be from various emulators of some older systems; particularly noteworthy is the very accurate emulation of the NES by it might be NES. An adapter to play Nintendo Game Boy games has been released; in the adapter, not the game boy hardware is installed, but its features are emulated. The emulation works but not perfect.