Photography or photography (from Greek φῶς, phos, the genitive: φωτός, photos, "Light (the celestial bodies)", "Brightness" and γράφειν, graphein, "draw", "carve", "paint", "write") may refer to
an imaging method, when the using optical techniques a photograph on a light-sensitive medium projected and there directly and permanently stored (analogue procedure) or converted to electronic data and stored (digital technology).
Permanent photograph (slide, film image or paper screen; short image, called colloquially photo), which is produced by photographic processes This can be either a positive or a negative for film, foil, paper or other photographic media. Photographic images are reproduced as print, zoom, copy of the film or exposure or printing of digital images. The photographer is the corresponding profession.
Images that are recorded for the cinema. Unlimited photographic images are recorded in series of single images on film, which can later be demonstrated with a film projector as moving images (moving images).
The term photograph was used for the first time (before English or French publications) on 25 February 1839 by astronomer Johann Heinrich. Photography until the 20th century, all of the images which caused purely by light on a chemically treated surface. The spelling of "Photography" was proposed with the German spelling reform of 1901, which but not quite prevailed until today. Mixed spellings such as nouns and adjectives from this modified or "Photography", "Photograph", however, were an incorrect spelling at any time.
Photography is a medium that is used in very different contexts. Photographic pictures can, for example, items with primary artistic (artistic photography) or primarily commercial nature of his (industrial photography, advertising and fashion photography). Photography can see artistic, technical (photography), economic (photo management) and social social (amateur, workers and documentary photography) aspects be considered. Also used photographs in journalism and medicine.
The photography is partly a subject of research and teaching in the history of art and the fledgling science of the image. The possible character of the art of photography was controversial for a long time, but is ultimately no longer disputed since the photographic style of dates around the turn of the 20th century. Some research directions map to the photography of the media or communication studies, also this attribution is disputed.
In the course of technological development the shift from the classical analogue (Silver) photography took place at the beginning of the 21st century gradually down to digital photography. The global collapse of the related industry for analog cameras but also for consumables (photo paper, films, laboratory equipment, photochemistry) causes that investigates photography more and more also see culture-scientific and cultural point of view. General cultural aspects in the research are E.g. considerations about the preservation and documentation of practical knowledge of photographic techniques for recording and processing but also the change in dealing with photography in everyday life. Increasingly culturally and historically interesting, archiving and preservation techniques are also system-independent long-term digital data storage for analog recordings.
The photography is subject to the complex and multilayered photo law; in the use of existing photographs are the copyright note.
A large-format camera lens
In principle a lens, is photographed usually with the help of an optical system, in many cases. This raises the emitted by an object or reflected light on the light-sensitive layer of a slide palette, a movie or a photoelectric converter, an image sensor.
A photographic equipment (camera) is the photographic record. Through manipulation of the optical system (including the setting of the aperture, focus, colour filtering, the choice of exposure time, the focal length of the lens, lighting, and last but not least the recording material) numerous design possibilities available to the photographer or cameraman. The SLR has prevailed as a versatile camera design both analogue and digital. Continue to the various special cameras needed and used for many tasks.
In film-based photography (such as silver photography), the light-sensitive layer on the image plane is a dispersion (in common parlance emulsion). It consists of a gel in the equally small grains of silver halide (for example Diglyme) are distributed. However, these granules are smaller, the layer (see ISO 5800-standard), is the less sensitive to light the resolution ("grain") is better. This light-sensitive layer is awarded by a vehicle stability. Cellulose acetate substrates, previously served to cellulose nitrate (celluloid), plastic film, metal plates, glass plates and even textiles (see slide palette and film).In digital photography, the equivalent of the photosensitive layer consists of chips such as CCD or CMOS sensors.Development and fixation 
Through the development of film-based photography, the latent image is made visible on chemically. When fixing the non exposed silver halide grains are made soluble in water and then washed out with water so that an image during daylight hours can be viewed without having it darkens.Another older technique is the dust procedure can be used for produce einbrennbare images on glass and porcelain.
A digital image must be developed; It is electronically stored and can then edited with the electronic image processing on the computer and off exposed if necessary on photo paper or printed with an inkjet printer. The further processing of raw data is known here development.
A deduction is the result of a photographic or a magnification of exposure; This is usually a paper image. Prints can be made from films (negative or slide) or from files.
Prints as photographic are the same size as the dimensions of the recording format; is made by the negative or positive, an increase in the size of the resulting image is a multiple of the size of the template, but usually the aspect ratio is maintained, which is 4: 5 classic photography for 1.5 or 3: 2, or in the United States.
An exception to this represents the zoom whose aspect ratio can be set arbitrarily in the stage of an enlarger. However, also the enlargements as a rule on a paper with specific dimensions will be exposed.
The trigger is a frequently chosen form of presentation of amateur photography, collected in special cassettes or albums. In the form of presentation of the slide projection to work normally with the original slide, so unique, while prints always make copies.
History of photography
Precursors and history
The name derives from the precursor of photography camera, the camera obscura ("dark Chamber") off, which is known since the 11th century, and at the end of the 13th century by astronomers to the solar observation was used. Instead of a lens, this camera has only a small hole covered by the the rays of light on a screen, the inverted, reversed image can be drawn off from the. Walk-in, space large spiritualists are obscurae, a tourist attraction in Edinburgh and Greenwich in London. The German film Museum has a camera obscura in the projected an image of the opposite bank of the main.
A breakthrough is the reinvention of the lens with the lighter and at the same time sharper images can be created in 1550. 1685: Mirror, an image can be drawn on paper.
In the 18th century were the Laterna magica, the panorama and the diorama. Chemists such as Humphry Davy began to investigate light-sensitive substances and to look for fixers.
The early procedures
The first photography was made in 1826 by Joseph Nicéphore Nièpce Helio demography method. Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre in 1837 used a better method, which was based on the development of the photos with the help of mercury vapours and subsequent fixation in a hot saline solution or a normal tempered Sodium Thiosulphate solution. The images produced in this way, all unique on silvered copper plates, were known as daguerreotypes. Already in 1835, Englishman William Fox Talbot had invented the negative-positive process. Today, even some of the historical process are used as fine printing in the Visual Arts and artistic photography.
In 1883, newspaper for the first time in a German publication appeared in major Leipziger Illustrirte weekly a rasterized photo in the form of a halftone, an invention made around 1880 by Georg Meiseberg b.
Precisa Beier folding bellows camera built in 1952
Photographs can be produced as unique, with the introduction of the negative positive process, duplication in the contact process was possible. In both cases, the size of the finished photos corresponded recording format, which required very large, bulky cameras. With the roll of film, and in particular the developed by Oskar Barnack at the Leitz works and introduced in 1924 camera which used the conventional 35 mm movie film, created completely new possibilities for mobile, high-speed photography. Though, due to the small format, additional devices were necessary to increase, and the image quality with the large formats far unable to compete, the small picture prevailed in most areas of photography as the default format.