Mahjong (/ mayonj /), mah jong, mah jongg (traditional Chinese: 麻將, simplified Chinese: 麻将), is a board game of Chinese origin, exported to the rest of the world, and particularly to the West, from 1920. In Chinese it is also known as Sparrow.

The game saves some similarity with the Rummy, since its objective is to train groups of tabs as stairs of consecutive numbers either three or four matching tiles of the same suit. Although the rules for play are almost always the same, there are different variations. The main difference between them is scored in what moves and which its value. This article focuses on the "hongkonesas rules" (also called "HK", "Hong Kong" or "Cantonese"), which are the most widespread.
His predecessor was called «game of leaves into strips», tabs were card stock, as the current cards. This material was gradually abandoned and began to manufacture chips of ivory, wood and, above all, bamboo, although currently it is normal to use the plastic, more durable and cheap. However, is still produced, as it was done in antiquity, true works of art in various materials.

Apparently mahjong is a direct descendant of an ancient Oracle that thousands of years ago consulted Chinese diviners. When astronomers began to register the progressions of the Sun, the Moon and the planets, used a simple mechanism, a Board, to calculate the positions of the celestial bodies. The movement across the skies there was moving a few counters around the Board divisions. This or other similar, also possibly the origin of widespread games such as Parcheesi, or goose. But precisely in the mahjong are recognizable traces of this source, such as the fact that the cardinal points are reversed, since it represented a non-Earth, celestial map, or is dealt thirteen cards, which are the months of the lunar calendar.
Anyway, the history of mahjong is unclear and there are many little documented history. For instance, one of the legends about its origin States that the game was invented by Confucius around 500 BC. According to this, three dragons tabs, red, green and white - in Chinese, respectively, literally «Centre», literally "prosperity" and literally 'white'-, would represent the Confucian virtues of benevolence, sincerity and filial piety. The red dragon would refer to China (Simplified Chinese: 中国, pinyin: Zhōngguó, literally 'Country of the Centre'). Also according to this legend, Confucio would have been a lover of birds, which would explain the name "Sparrow" which also receives the game.

A more or less related to the current mahjong game, was invented in the Tang dynasty, during the years of the reign of the Emperor Tai Zong (626-649), for the amusement of the imperial house and the nobility. However, there is no evidence of mahjong's existence before the time of the Taiping rebellion, in the mid-19th century. The general consensus is that the game was developed around 1850 on the basis of existing cards and domino games. Many historians believe it was based on a card game called traditional Chinese: 馬吊, simplified Chinese: 马吊, literally "horse hung" or traditional Chinese: 葉子, simplified Chinese: 叶子, literally "Blade" at the beginning of the Ming dynasty. This game was played with forty cards numbered from 1 to 9 in nine sticks with four extra flower cards in a manner similar to the current mahjong. According to some, the game would have been created by army officers during the Taiping rebellion to pass the time. According to another theory, it would have been created by a nobleman who lived in the vicinity of Shanghai between 1870 and 1875. Others believe that it was the work of two brothers who lived in the city of Ningpo. 

But in reality, mahjong as we know it today has a fairly short history, since it dates back at the end of imperial China in the early 20th century; This is the so-called "old style".
The first time that mention was made of the mahjong in a language other than Chinese was in 1895, in an article in American anthropologist Stewart Culin and by 1910 there were already several writings in other languages such as French or Japanese. In United States, Joseph Park Babcock wrote a book called Rules of Mah-Jongg ("rules of the Mah-Jongg"), in a version of 1920 was known as "the Red Book", although these simplifications would leave later. The game was a great success in England and United States, which came to prominence with trade names such as Pung Chow or Game of Thousand Intelligences, part of fashion by all Eastern, dedicating it also hit as Desde Ma songs from the 1920s is Playing Mah Jong, Eddie Cantor. It was played mainly by women. In the 1930s, in United States, several revisions of the rules were made until the "League national of Mah Jongg" (National Mah Jongg League NMJL) was created in 1937 and standardized the regulation with the book Maajh: The American Version of the Ancient Chinese Game ("Maajh: the American version of the ancient Chinese game"). Although in the years twenty had been a game accepted by people of all races, from this official recognition was considered racistamente a Jewish game, since many of their players were; and even the NMJL was regarded as a Jewish organization, product of anti-Semitism. The Western version of the game is called "new style", but it seems that the origin of these changes comes from Beijing and Shanghai, so sometimes this new style is called it "Shanghai style".
Be that as it may, the undoubted is that most of the players are currently in Taiwan and United States, since it was banned in Communist China for decades. However, with the political reforms undertaken in the early 1990s, mahjong has come to be considered official sport since 1998 in mainland China and, although he never stopped playing in the houses, now returns to be the picture of players of mahjong in the streets of the Chinese populations. Along with the decriminalization of its practice, the Chinese Government released an official regulation which is that governing in the official World Championships, the first of which was held in Tokyo in 2002. In this way, was intended to recover a cultural heritage of China which was being usurped by other Asian Nations.
Mahjong has become a popular huge in all of Asia, so that many countries consider it their national game. There are many variants adapted to each country, such as the Japanese, the Korean, Vietnamese or Filipino, and it is normal for any festive event, celebration, meal, or even business, finished with a mahjong game. There is also an israeli Variant.
In the West, mahjong is known mostly only indirectly through solitary game versions, called Shangais, but popularly known under the same name of Mahjong; Whose games have simple rules and whose rule is matching Mahjong tiles. Being the solitary Shangais popularized by internet through online games.

Characteristics and objective

Mahjong is a game for four players and rare times is practiced with a varying number of participants. However, can also play three, although the game lost interest. Therefore, always assume that we speak of the game for four players.
One of the aspects that we must consider is the Chinese origin of mahjong, which represents of itself in the eyes of Westerners, an attractive, by giving certain exoticism to the game, mainly in what refers tabs design and terminology, which uses the original Chinese terms in several cases.
The virtues of mahjong, which have undoubtedly helped to popularize extraordinarily, include the following:
It is relatively easy to learn how to play; the basic rules can teach in one or two games.
It is an ideal social game. At the time that each player focuses on its thirteen tabs, you can engage in conversation with the other three; Thus it is possible even to do business in a pleasant atmosphere.
It is a very flexible and easily adaptable game. The four players jointly set their own rules and time limits. The game may interrupt at any time to meet some momentary matter, and be continued later.
The difficulty of the game can increase or decrease at will, according to the rules to be included according to the experience of the participants.
A set of tabs lasts a lifetime.
Each player participates individually: there is no system that allows establishing teams. The game takes place in successive games, each of which can only be won by one of the four players; provided that ends a game the winner receives points of the three losers. At the end is a count of points, and determines the status of each one. Although this can be done by pointing the points of each player in a role, the best is to provide tabs that symbolize the points as a currency.

 Necessary equipment

It is essential to ensure a set of specific tabs to play mahjong. If you also have other elements the game will be much more pleasant, but you do without them. For example, it is advisable to have music stands to place tabs (one for each player); a set of tabs to post points (can serve the ones used for the roulette or any other game); a table square or round; two dice; and four disks or labels with inscriptions or symbols from the four winds (East, South, West and North), to show the round playing each time.

The lecterns, dice and symbols from the four winds sometimes included with the basic game of cards, also called shingles. Some auxiliary power strips that help the formation of the wall are also sometimes used.


Mahjong is composed of 144 tiles or shingles:

36 cards of the suit of disks (also called circles, gold medals, points, coins or plates)

36 tabs of the bamboo stick

36 sheets of the characters (also called numbers or figures) stick

16 chips of winds (East, South, West and North)

12 tiles Dragons (Red Dragon, Green Dragon and White Dragon)

4 sheets of flowers

4 pieces of stations

Except for the flowers and seasons, non-repeating, there are four copies of each tab.

Tabs of the three clubs (disks, bamboos and characters) are numbered in a way analogous to the cards, from one to nine.

In terms of winds, there are four: North, South, East and West. In addition, there are three dragons: red, white and green. This makes a total of 9 x 3 + 4 + 3 = 34 different tabs, which are repeated 4 times. Adding the 4 flowers and the 4 stations get 34 x 4 + 4 + 4 = 144 tabs.

In addition, winds and dragons are called honours. To the ones and nines of each suit are called terminals. The remaining tabs, from 2 to 8 of each stick, called also simple.

The flowers & seasons give extra points and are not used in all versions of the game.

Players draw

Once players have taken a seat, in the order they want, are then assigned to each a wind or cardinal point, whose order is not usual in West, but East - North - West - South, in the opposite direction of the needles of a watch. This ordination, seemingly capricious, responds to the cardinal points of a map are upside down, as if in heaven had a transparent map and mirásemos us, we see it from the ground, the cardinal points of upside down. Obviously, it is not necessary to take into account none of this, just follow the order indicated as a "rule of the game", that basically is what turns out to be.

To determine which player is the East two dice are thrown, and who get higher score is invested as the East wind. The other players are then also determined, as explained above. I.e. the player on your right is the South front is the West, and on your left is the North.

As a curiosity, it has said that the original form of determination of the East wind is much more complex and elaborate among Chinese players, with provisional winds used to determine the final then. However, as the purpose is the same, we understand the system described as perfectly valid.

Number of Mahjong competition rules

We will call "heading" each of the episodes in which they move and spread the tabs, and that ends or when a player gives the same end by mahjong or when just the tabs of the wall. Each game has two winds that affect you, the "prevailing wind" (or "round wind") and "own wind" (or "wind seat"). The first game prevailing wind is East. He is called "own wind" wind that you match each player. 

Development of the game

Formation of the wall

Once placed upside down all the chips on the table, players shall mix them well so there are no traces of earlier ordinations. Following the so-called "wall" will be built, using all tabs, formed by four walls, each of 18 sheets length (17 not using flowers and seasons) and two sheets of height. All these tabs will be upside down. The four rows shall be as the sides of a square, in the Centre of which leave the tabs that are discarded.

The wall opening and sharing of tabs

The player who is this wind takes two dice and throws; with the number obtained there, in an anti-clockwise direction and side of the wall will pick starting by itself, that is up tabs. For example, suppose that this wind rolls the dice and gets a 7, tabs will pick up by the side of the West player (1 this 2, 3 West, South 4 North 5 East, 6 South and 7 West).

Once you know the side of the wall that will begin to pick up the tabs, the player on that side of the wall will be from the right corner of the wall as many rows to the left or the number that had gone on the dice; in our example, the West would stop in row 7; (as each row is double, there currently are 14 tabs from the right corner to that place). From this tab, the player this takes four, and put it in front of them (i.e., spreads to the first), which would be in our example in rows 7 and 8; then South will take other two rows (9 and 10), etc.; When has each player caught four tabs, repeats this same operation twice more, so each have 12 pieces; then each player take one tab, always starting from the East, which all have 13 tiles, and finally, East takes a last tab for him alone, with which this wind is 14 tabbed and others with 13. The gap left by tabs that have been distributed called gap, so the initial distribution of shingles is sometimes called "open breach of the wall". The game has begun.

Finally, counting 7 rows from the gap to the right (i.e., would be 14 tabs at the end), these tabs are called dead wall, and serve to take tabs extra after becoming Kongs or show a flower or station. The dead wall tabs do not play by what if the wall does not become more chips the game would be completed.

Each player's turn

Once distributed the cards, the player who is seat wind has been 14 tabbed in hand. If by chance the tabs that have matched you form mahjong would say it immediately and that game would have ended; but this is very rare, so you have to try to go looking for best chips. (Note that moment we not care to explain how does mahjong, and, therefore, we don't know what tabs are good or bad, that does not matter at the moment).

Then the first player discards one of the tabs in your hand, and will put it on the table, face up, in the central space bordered by the wall. This means that it has finished his turn, and starts the player on your right, which will proceed to steal the first tab of the wall (located to the left of the newly open gap), will be the lower of its row tab, since the tab above has been distributed. After stealing, remains with 14 tabs, and then (unless that has formed a mahjong, which would end the game), find a tab that you want to discard, does it, and passes the turn, and so on.

It is important to note that the players are always taking the first tab free of the wall, i.e., located to the left of the gap; Although she has not been mentioned so far, it is clear that take the tabs from the top down, i.e. first tab above, then bottom, then top the next row, etc. This principle by which players are taking in turn a tab of the wall is affected by some exceptions mentioned below, which allow a player can take the discarded on the other tab, and that the order of play alter, jumping to any player.

End of the game

As the game develops they will go gradually consuming the tabs of the wall. Generally the game will end when any of the four players place their pieces by mahjong, but if it were the case that consume all valid cards without that none would have succeeded, will begin a new game, rotating winds assigned to each player. They are cards valid all less the last 14 that formed the wall dead, i.e., at the time a player leaves 14 tiles on the wall and it has not been able to do the same mahjong, the game has ended without a winner. Please note that is you are stealing always in the counterclockwise direction, i.e. following the gap opened in the wall when tabs were given at the beginning, sometimes take tabs on the other end of the wall (this happens when you "kong", as you'll later see), with which the last 14 tabs of the wall may be "moving" throughout the game.

After the game, and determined the winner and losers, is the count of points that should receive the first part of each one of the losers; This is done with the help of everyone, since although the rivalry is great while they compete, it is normal to collaborate to accelerate this phase of the game, which is the most tedious, especially if players are rookies.

If the winner was the player who was this, the winds are not rotated. In another case, the winds are rotated counter-clockwise. I.e. East would become North, South would be this, the West would be South and North would be West. If you did not win anyone (ran valid tabs), the winds are not rotated.

After this, the tabs are mixed, and starts a new game.


Trios, stairs: pung and chow. String quartets: kong

To be able to continue explaining the development of the game we need to introduce these three concepts. A pung, pung or trio (?, peng) is always formed by three identical tabs. For example: three white dragons, three winds West, three 7 of bamboos, etc. A chow, chi or ladder (?, chi) is formed by three consecutive cards of the same suit, or three dragons. In other words, are chow sets (1 Disc-2 disks-3 discs) (7 bamboos-8 bamboos-9 bamboos) (red dragon, green dragon, white dragon), etc. A kong (?, ?, gang) consists of four identical cards (four white dragons, the four discs 7...), i.e. is the same as a pung but with four cards instead of three. However, pung and chow formations are "normal" and kong training is "exceptional", as it will be later. Note that chow with the winds, is not only can form may be used to form pung or kong.

When a player has in his hand a pung, chow or kong, has achieved already is well because they were distributed between their initial cards, or that it has achieved based on rule and steal chips from the wall, these formations are "hidden" said. A hidden combination stays on until the player makes mahjong, i.e., not apparent to the rest of the players that has, except in the case of the kong. If a player had a kong and not say anything, could not make mahjong, that would be missing a tab in order to form four combinations and pair of eyes (see the following paragraph). For this reason, if a player has a hidden kong, must declare it before the end of the game (before the end of any of their turns). At any time in their turn, the player low before it four tabs of the kong, and receives an additional tile, which is taken not from the first free of the wall, but the dead wall (this part of the wall is also called "kong box" for this reason). The kong that has fallen on the table turns so that are upside down two tiles of the ends, and turns upside down two plants; This kong is considered "hidden kong", despite the fact that it is on the table, since it has been prepared without the help of other players. Another variant is to leave three chips upside down and right side upside down.


The objective of all players in each game is always the same: Charleston. This is achieved when, after stealing a new tab of the wall or ordered a discard (i.e., being the player with 14 tiles in the hand), they are distributed in any of the combinations that are considered "mahjong". Therefore, a mahjong is a combination of 14 tabs, distributed this way: any four combinations (pung, kong or chow), and a pair of identical cards (called "the pair of eyes"). There are some exceptional combinations that are mahjong and do not respond to this scheme, as mentioned below, but for now we can consider that we will always have four combinations and a pair of eyes. It is important to note that the kong function as the pung, but when a player makes a kong gets one extra tile, because if not, you could do the other combinations. Thus, valid combinations for mahjong are the following: (the amount of tabs above each hand does not include flowers and seasons)


Four pung and the pair of eyes (14 cards)

Three pung, a chow, and the pair of eyes (14 cards)

Two pung, two chow, and the pair of eyes (14 cards)

A pung, three chow, and the pair of eyes (14 cards)

Four chow and the pair of eyes (14 cards)


A kong, a pung, two chow and the pair of eyes (15 cards)

A kong, two pung, a chow and the pair of eyes (15 cards)

A kong, three pung and the pair of eyes (15 cards)

A kong, three chow and the pair of eyes (15 cards)

Two kong, a pung, a chow and the pair of eyes (16 cards)

Two kong, two pung and the pair of eyes (16 cards)

Two kong, two chow and the pair of eyes (16 cards)

Three kong, a pung, and the pair of eyes (17 cards)

Three kong, a chow, and the pair of eyes (17 cards)

Four kong and the pair of eyes (18 cards)

Mahjong with more chips has four kong and the pair of eyes (18 cards).

A variant of the game is to play by limiting the amount of chow allowed one, so difficulty is added to the game and the following combinations are not valid:

Two pung, two chow, and the pair of eyes (14 cards)

A pung, three chow, and the pair of eyes (14 cards)

Four chow and the pair of eyes (14 cards)

A kong, a pung, two chow and the pair of eyes (15 cards)

A kong, three chow and the pair of eyes (15 cards)

Two kong, two chow and the pair of eyes (16 cards)

Use of the discarded cards

As he has been said above, each player in turn steals of the wall (which momentarily has 14 tabs), and then, if you don't have formed mahjong, discarded one, returning to the number of 13. But many times you would like to take the tab that someone has ruled out rather than take one of the wall, which may be done in this way:

To make a pung

If any player discards a card, and another has two identical to the deprecated tabs in your hand, you can claim for himself the excluded tab, saying "pung". To do so, the game interrupted the normal sequence, and continues the shift with the player who claimed the discard, who must discard then a tab, then continuing normally. Let us take an example: North steals of the wall and dropped a 4 character. Him it would play to the East, but the West has in the two hand 4 character, and says "pung". At that time, the West takes 4 characters of the table and places it to the view next to the two that had hidden and discards another tab. Continues playing back North (which is next to the West player), etc.

Important remarks:

There can only be a player in a position to say pung to a discarded tab, since we should remember that there are four tabs of each, one of which was discarded, so you can not have two players two sheets over each hand.

As soon as the player says "pung", and as proof that he actually had two tabs needed, lower the trio that has been formed, with tabs to the view in front of him (will remain and the rest of the game). When this occurs it is said that the pung is "exposed" or being "seen". Then the player makes the discarding, and continues for the next player.

A player can claim their pung as soon as the appropriate tab is discarded, and you still have a right to do so while the next player has not made disposal, even if you have stolen from the wall. If this occurs, i.e. If a player claims pung once the next player has stolen, as the shift is going to jump, it returns to the wall tab you stole (and possibly already he has seen).

This rule can be changed by choosing that as soon as the player following theft of the wall was lost the right to claim the "pung", this increases the difficulty of the game and makes that is this very attentive to it.

To make a kong

The rules are similar to the case of the pung, but saying "kong" rather than "pung". A kong also takes precedence over the chow. When you get a kong in this way, asking a discarded tab, the kong resulting "exposed" is, and turns against the player with all the shingles views during the rest of the game. At that time the player who has taken steals an extra tab of the wall, in the area of the "dead wall".

To make a chow

If a player discards a card, you can only claim it to form a chow with her the next player; to do so, say the word "chow" or "chi", and instead of stealing of the wall will take the newly deprecated tab. It is necessary that this player already has other two tabs of the chow who is forming, and as in the pung, will front the chow, which is then "exposed" to the rest of the game.


A chow does not alter the game turn, since can only order it the next player in turn (i.e. on the right). The exception occurs when a player expected to form a chow to Charleston (in this case can steal from any player, not only of the left tab).

If a tab is at the same time claimed by the player next to chow, and on the other for pung, prevailing pung, who claims which carries it.

If the player who discards a tab following steals of the wall, because you can not return it and instead claim chow, i.e., the right is lost as soon as he steals.

For Charleston

When a player is in the absence of a single tab to mahjong, you can ask it to the discard any player; It will do it this by saying "mahjong", will take the table tab, and the game finished, turning to calculate the score. If a tab is desired by other players for pung or kong chow, you have priority one requesting it to Charleston. If there are several players who claim the shingle to Charleston, will get it is located first on who ruled out the tab, always in the direction of the game (i.e. counterclockwise) counting. Please note that for Charleston we ask any tab, even if it is for the pair of eyes.


Once the player that has made mahjong in a game, will be counted the points that has succeeded, you will be paid by the other three players; However, three other players do not pay the same points, because we have to take into account who discarded the tab which served the winner for Charleston (if you have not won stealing of the wall). A loser pays double if he discarded the tab that served to mahjong to the winner. A variant is to avoid this penalty by discarding, avoiding that in the event that the winner is the prevailing wind to rule out the tab pay quadruple (double for penalty and double by winning the prevailing wind of the round).

We put some examples (the basic points still do not know calculate them, so we will fix them arbitrarily):

Case 1

Winner: West, stealing the last tile of the wall

Pagan East, North and South:

All West score x 2 (i.e., double your score).

Case 2

Winner: West, stealing a tab that ruled North

Pagan East, North and South:

East: the West player's score

North: the West player's score twice

South: the West player's score

Case 3

Winner:, Stealing a tab that ruled North

Pagan West, North and South:

West: the this player's score

North: this x 2 player's score

South: the this player's score

In addition, East retains seat, i.e. in the following game again this wind.

System for obtaining the riichi

Rules that are set out below are ordered in number of riichi. These rules are not mutually exclusive, and in fact will apply all that is possible to each mahjong; riichi obtained, and then are indicating the circumstances that lead to this achievement. On the other hand, it must be borne in mind that when you talk about combinations seen or hidden we always refer to pung chow or kong, the pair of eyes does not fit in this consideration.

 1 riichi

All chow: mahjong formed by four chow and the pair of eyes.

Pung or Kong of own wind

Pung or Kong of prevailing wind

Each flower or own wind station: each flower or station takes a number that associates it with a wind. 1 Is associated to the East, South 2, 3 to the West and 4 to the North. Thus, if the West player has the flower 3 1 riichi would be added.

By not having any flower or station.

To close the wall, i.e., close not picking a discard. (This circumstance also involves duplication of points, as we know).

Close the last tab of the wall or disposal. We must remember that the last tile of the wall is just the prior to the first tab of the dead wall. Also known as "catch the Moon from the bottom of the sea".

Close extra after declaring a Kong ticketed.

Close with theft of Kong: close with a tab with which another player expanding an exposed Kong Pung.

 2 riichi

You have all the flowers or all stations: have the 4 sheets of flowers or the 4 stations.

 3 riichi

All pung: take 4 pung/kong and the couple.

Semipura hand: all cards are of the same suit, more honors.

4 riichi

Three small dragons: have pung/kong of two dragons and the third couple. Obviously it has to be done mahjong with 4 combinations and the couple.

Seven pairs: have 7 pairs of tiles. This is a special move that does not follow the rule of the 4 combinations and the couple.

 6 riichi

Pure hand: have all the combinations (and partner) formed by cards of the same suit.

 10 riichi

Hidden treasure: having 4 pung/kong (and partner) everything hidden.

All kongs: take 4 kongs and a couple.

Three large wise men or three large Dragons: pung/kong of the 3 dragons and any other combination, having more the couple.

Four small winds: have pung/kong of winds and a pair of the fourth, 3 and any other combination.

All honors: honors (dragons and winds) have all combinations (pung/kong and the couple) formed only by tabs.

All terminals: terminals (tabs 1 and 9 of clubs) have all combinations (pung/kong and the couple) formed only by tabs.

Jade Dragon: have a pung/kong of green dragons, and the rest pung/kong of bamboos (in addition to the couple).

Ruby Dragon: have a pung/kong of red Dragons, and the rest pung/kong of characters (in addition to the couple).

Dragon Pearl: have a pung/kong of white dragons, and the rest pung/kong of disks (in addition to the couple).

Quick hand: Charleston during the first round with the stolen tab of the wall.

Nine doors: be 1-1 - 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-9-9 in the same stick and hidden, and close any tab of that same suit.

Thirteen orphans: have 1 and 9 of each suit, one of each of the dragons and one of each of the winds, and a tab more equal than those described.

Playing with flowers & seasons

Flowers & seasons tabs are additional tiles that serve only to score points.

When a player steals a flower of the wall, immediately it back against itself, in the zone are placed views combinations, and again take another tab (since the flower does not have to make any combination, and failure to do so would be with a less tab); the new tab which replaces the flower will be taken from the wall of the dead, not the normal place where the tabs will be taken. If you receive a second flower, repeats the same, etc.

Nothing but divide up tabs at the beginning of the game, each player discovers the flowers has received (if you have received any, course), e will be taking in order (first East, then South, then West and finally North) tabs that replace the flowers, taking them from the dead wall, and starting with itself; If the new tabs include flowers is repeated operation, as he has been said in the previous case.

The rest of the game is in the same way, so the only effect of the flowers is to increase obtained riichi.

Mistakes made during the game: penalties

It is relatively common, especially among beginners, commit an error or offence. The most serious is to sing mahjong, and when one is calculating the score, discovering that he had not obtained; This is called "false mahjong", and the penalty is that who committed it pay corresponding to 2 riichi points to each of the other three players, without then apply rules that can duplicate this figure. The game repeats without that change the seat wind. Although it seems a hard rule, it is advisable to apply it without hesitation.

Another current error among beginners, generally committed by mistake to steal from the wall, is to stay with a greater or lesser number of tabs that should be. These cases are called "big eunuch" and "small eunuch", respectively. There is no penalty, unless the player sings mahjong, which necessarily would be false, simply the "eunuch" cannot win the game. Why, the players in this circumstance are interested in reaching zero game, i.e. shall endeavour are exhausted all valid tabs of the wall.

Other errors should be lenient; Thus, if a player says "pung" and then is that you don't have two tabs needed, just undo the move and continue normally, etc.

Game variants

The rules that have been explained here are the hongkonesas or Cantonese, the simplest, so are suitable for beginning to play mahjong.

However, there are other typically more complex rules are also widespread:

Mahjong competition rules or RCM (also calls, Chinese international official rules or official Chinese rules): are the rules used in the vast majority of official tournaments. They are rules with a lot of moves, which gives it complexity and beauty to the game.

Modern American rules: these are rules more extended and played on the United States. Use Jokers and Charleston (tokens are exchanged before starting each game).

Classic European rules: they are old rules that still continue proposing rules as example in some Spanish manufacturing mahjong games.

Riichi Japanese rules: one of the most widely used Japanese rules. They are used in several tournaments in Europe and Japan.

Taiwanese rules: rules in which the hands are 16 chips.

Frequently asked questions

Can a player on their turn return any combination that is already complete and hidden in his hand, so that it is exposed, i.e. declared?

You can do it, any combination can be voluntarily declared, except in the already mentioned case of the kong, and of course when taking a discarded card to complete a pung or a chow, but nothing more. So if a player already has in hand B2 B3 B4, the only way to do it is seen that discarding the previous player of B3, for example, ask this tab and then Yes you can lower the chow.

What is better, closing soon, albeit with few points, or run the risk of finding a better combination?

There is no fixed answer. The decision on the issue depends on the score achieved in the previous advantages, and how bad that is the score that is going to get with the achieved mahjong. It is not good to close with 1 or 2 riichi, and not to mention with the empty hand (or hands of the chicken), but sometimes better bird in hand cent flying.

Number of riichi must achieve to have a "good hand"? What is normal?

Closing with 1 riichi or less is little; normal tends to be between 2 and 4; but it is not too difficult to have more.

Certain combinations are impossible, never leave. What to do to get them?

All combinations can be made, but it is important to choose from the initial tabs; If dragons are not taken, it will be difficult to achieve a mahjong consisting only of these tabs, etc.

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To read even more about mahjong here is another great article

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